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Implementation of GIS & Remote sensing to support urban development analysis Case study : Makkah city, KSA

Hesham Bagnied1*, Tarek A. El-Damaty2
Page No. 1-14


Makkah city has experienced substantial urban growth over the last few decades, transforming from rural to urban communities due to rapid economic growth. The purpose of this study is to monitor and analysis the Population growth, Urban expansion, Topography and land use classification of Makkah city for last 20 years, from 2000 to 2020. The city of Makkah al-Mukarramah is regarded one of the cities that receive special attention from the Saudi government for its religious and regional eminence, which helped the city achieve record developmental leaps in short periods of time. Consequently, the city has witnessed a population boom and a spatial expansion towards its outskirts, resulting in an increase and a quality shift in its districts. Makkah city is located in the west of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, about 400 km from Medina in the southwest direction, and about 75 km from the city of Taif in the eastern direction, and 72 km from the city of Jeddah and the Red Sea coast and the closest ports to it is the Jeddah Islamic Port, and the nearest Airports Its international airport is King Abdul-Aziz International Airport. Great iconic projects followed, such as: Al-Harameen rail project, Al-Haram al-Sharif expansion project, Makkah slum developments, and completion of the structural road network and prospective ring roads projects, leading to great changes in the urban morphology of the city. The Data used in this study are census data from 2000 to 2020, as well as Landsat data for the years of 2000, 2010 and 2020 along with Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. Digital data, along with the final output map compositions, have been processed through mapping software: ArcGIS v10.3 and ERDAS IMAGINE v14. The results in this paper smart growth rate in Makkah city by (2.453%) in 2020 and (2%) in 2010, which guarantees development for future land use/land cover planning in Makkah City. In 2000 the population was 1,294,000 and in 2010 increased to 1,578,722 by overall rate of increase by (22%) then in 2020 jumps to 2,017,793 by (27.81%) that means the population have increased almost the double from 2000 to 2020. The Area of Makkah city have increased in 2020 to 465 km2 compare to 2010 was 388 km2 & in 2000 was 366 km2. This is due to the increase of number of districts in Makkah city from 60 in 2010 to 101 in 2020 by rate of increase about (68.3 %) from the number of districts. The researcher uses a map scale of 1:300,000 and the items to classify was Mountains (blue), urban (green), desert (red) and roads (black). The conclusion was as we expected the mountains and deserts have decreased and the urban & roads have increased this because of the increase of population during the 20 years.
Keywords: Satellite imagery, Urban analysis, Land Use classification , Topography map, Population Growth, Makkah city.

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